The Naloxone for Opioid Safety Evaluation (NOSE) was a NIDA-funded R21 to implement and evaluate naloxone co-prescribing in 6 safety net primary care clinics in San Francisco. The study was a significant success, with multiple resulting publications.


1) Coffin PO, Behar E, Rowe C, Santos GM, Coffa D, Bald M, Vittinghoff E. Nonrandomized Intervention Study of Naloxone Coprescription for Primary Care Patients Receiving Long-Term Opioid Therapy for Pain. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Aug 16;165(4):245-52. doi: 10.7326/M15-2771. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

2) Behar E, Rowe C, Santos GM, Coffa D, Turner C, Santos NC, Coffin PO. Acceptability of Naloxone Co-Prescription Among Primary Care Providers Treating Patients on Long-Term Opioid Therapy for Pain. J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Mar;32(3):291-295. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3911-z. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

3) Rowe C, Vittinghoff E, Santos GM, Behar E, Turner C, Coffin PO. Performance Measures of Diagnostic Codes for Detecting Opioid Overdose in the Emergency Department. Acad Emerg Med. 2017 Apr;24(4):475-483. doi: 10.1111/acem.13121. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

4) Behar E, Rowe C, Santos GM, Murphy S, Coffin PO. Primary Care Patient Experience with Naloxone Prescription. Ann Fam Med. 2016 Sep;14(5):431-6. doi: 10.1370/afm.1972.